Fight or Flight: France Ends its Counterterrorist Intervention in the Sahel

After nine years of counter-terrorist military operations in the Sahel, President Emmanuel Macron announced the return home of French troops in February 2022. But the terrorist threat is looming over the region more than ever. If he stayed, the decision would have been unpopular with his electorate and abusive to Malians. By leaving, he’s risking African and European security.
Photo source:

Populism in the Tropics: The Rise (and Fall?) of Jair Bolsonaro

At the time of his election in 2018, Jair Bolsonaro was dismissed as just a Tropical Donald Trump. Since he became the leader of the largest nation of South America, he created his own brand of xenophobic, misogynistic, right-wing populism. What exactly makes him a populist and why did people vote for him? Do these reasons still stand in the midst of a global pandemic?